Decreasing Trends in Intestinal Resection and Re-Resection in Crohn's Disease: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Abstract

Objective: To assess time trends in intestinal resection and re-resection in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients.
Summary of Background Data: CD treatment has changed considerably over the past decades. The effect of these advances on the necessity of intestinal resections and the risk of re-resection is unclear.
Methods: In this nationwide cohort study, adult CD patients with ileocolonic, small bowel, colon, or rectum resections between 1991 and 2015 were included. Data were retrieved from the Dutch nationwide network and registry of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). Time trends were analyzed with a broken stick model and Cox proportional hazard model with smoothing splines.
Results: The identified cohort comprised 8172 CD patients (3293 / 4879 male/female) in whom 10,315 intestinal resections were performed. The annual intestinal resection rate decreased nonlinearly from 22.7 / 100,000 CD patients (1991) to 2.5 / 100,000 (2015). A significantly steeper decrease was observed before 1999 (slope −1.56) as compared to subsequent years (slope −0.41) (P < 0.001). Analogous trends were observed for ileocolonic, small bowel, and colon resections. Overall cumulative risk of re-resection was 10.9% at 5 years, 18.6% at 10 years, and 28.3% at 20 years after intestinal resection. The hazard for intestinal re-resection showed a nonlinear decreasing trend, with hazard ratio 0.39 (95% confidence interval 0.36–0.44) in 2000 and hazard ratio 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.18–0.34) in 2015 as compared to 1991.
Conclusion: Over the past 25 years, intestinal resection rate has decreased significantly for ileocolonic, small bowel, and colonic CD. In addition, current postoperative CD patients are at 75% lower risk of intestinal re-resection.

Publication
Annals of Surgery, 2019