Background: Evidence for the efficacy of TIPSS in ectopic variceal bleeding (EctVB) is largely based on relatively small series.
Aim: To define the efficacy of TIPSS in EctVB.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with chronic liver disease who presented with EctVB and received TIPSS in three tertiary centres in 1992‐2016
Results: The study included 53 patients (70% male, median age 61 years, median model for end‐stage liver disease (MELD) score 11). The ectopic varices were located around the insertion of stomas (40%), duodenum (23%), rectum (17%) and at other sites (20%). Three‐quarters of the patients had previously received unsuccessful medical, endoscopic or surgical therapy. The median follow‐up was 14.0 months. Following TIPSS, bleeding recurred in 12 patients: 6 of 12 (50%) with duodenal varices, 2 of 9 (22%) with rectal varices and one each with stomal (1⁄21), intraperitoneal (1⁄3), hepaticojejunostomy (1⁄2) and ascending colon varices (1⁄2). The risk factors for re‐bleeding were MELD score at TIPSS placement (HR: 1.081 per point; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.012‐1.153; P = 0.034), varices located at site other than an enterostomy (HR: 9.770; 95%CI: 1.241‐76.917; P = 0.030) and previous local therapy (HR: 5.710; 95%CI: 1.211‐26.922; P = 0.028). The estimated cumulative re‐bleeding rate was 23% at 1 year, 26% at 3 years and 32% at 5 years. Post‐TIPSS hepatic encephalopathy manifested or worsened in 16 of 53 patients (30%).
Conclusion: TIPSS provides long‐term control of bleeding in most cirrhotic patients with EctVB. TIPSS is particularly effective in stomal EctVB, the most frequent cause of EctVB, but might not be as effective in duodenal EctVB.